신종플루 감염 돼지농장 9곳 늘어

신종플루 감염 돼지농장 9곳 늘어

 
(서울=연합뉴스) 정성호 기자 = 돼지에 신종 인플루엔자A(H1N1.신종플루) 감염이 확산하고 있다.

농림수산식품부는 16일 전국의 9개 양돈농장에서 신종플루에 걸린 돼지가 추가로 확인됐다고 밝혔다.

14일 5개 농장에서 신종플루 감염 돼지가 국내 최초로 발생한 데 이어 신종플루 감염 돼지가 확산하는 추세다.

이번에 감염이 확인된 농장은 경북 군위.경주.영천.경산의 5개 농장, 경기 파주 1곳, 전남 장성 1곳, 경남 고성 1곳, 제주 1곳 등이다. 이들 9개 농장에서 사육되는 돼지는 모두 1만9천여 마리 규모다.

농식품부 관계자는 "농장별로 17마리를 샘플로 지정해 채혈한 뒤 이를 한데 섞어 감염 여부를 조사하기 때문에 신종플루에 감염된 돼지의 개체 숫자는 알 수 없다"고 말했다.

농식품부는 추가로 감염이 확인된 농장에 대해서도 기존 가축방역협의회 결정대로 3주간 이동 제한 조치를 취할 계획이다.

3주 뒤 정밀검사를 통해 농장에 신종플루 바이러스가 없다는 것을 확인하면 이 조치를 풀게 된다.

농식품부 신종플루 돼지 발생 양상과 감염 경로를 파악하는 역학조사 결과 등을 분석해 돼지에 신종플루 백신을 접종하는 방안을 검토하기로 했다.

농식품부 관계자는 "신종플루가 돼지에게는 가벼운 질환이고 사람에게 전염된 사례도 없어 살(殺)처분 같은 조치는 고려하지 않고 있다"며 "현재로선 다른 농장으로의 전파 차단이 최우선"이라고 말했다.

sisyphe@yna.co.kr
(끝)

by 프라즈마공기살균기 | 2009/12/16 15:33 | 트랙백(293) | 덧글(0)

신종플루 위기단계 하향에 가려진 사망자

신종플루 위기단계 하향에 가려진 사망자
 
 
   신종플루 위기단계가 '심각'에서 '경계'로 하향 조정되었습니다.
   보건복지가족부는 지난달 3일 '심각' 단계로 상향했던 신종플루 위기단계를 11일을 기해 '경계' 단계로 하향키로 결정했다고 10일 밝혔습니다. 복지부는 위기단계를 하향한 이유로 인플루엔자 유행지수(ILI)와 항바이러스제 투약 건수가 감소하고, 신종플루 예방접종이 순조롭게 진행되고 있다는 점을 들었다.
   신종플루 위기단계를 '경계'로 하향조정을 발표한 10일 오전 서울 서초구에 있는 가톨릭대학교 서울성모병원의 신종플루 진료센터는 한산한 모습이었습니다. 신종플루가 대유행기에 접어들었던 지난 10월말 이 병원의 진료센터는 마치 '야전병원'을 방불케 했습니다('고1 아들과 신종 플루 거점병원에 갔더니'
   병원 관계자에 따르면 신종플루 진료를 위해 찾는 사람들은 많을 때는 하루 500명 이상 몰렸지만 지금은 100명 수준으로 줄었다도 합니다.
 


 [출처=보건복지가족부-질병관리본부 12월 10일자 보도자료]
 
   신종플루 위기단계를 '심각'으로 격상시킨 후 설치되었던 행정안전부 내 중앙재난안전대책본부 대신 보건복지가족부와 질병관리본부가 이날 내놓은 보도자료에 따르면 11월초 하루 10만명에 육박했던 신종플루 치료제 투약 건수는 지난달 30일 이후 하루 3만명선으로 떨어졌습니다. 또 집단 발병 우려가 높은 초중고등학교 재학생 백신접종 대상자 750만명 중 76%에 달하는 572만명이 예방주사를 맞았습니다.
   또 항바이러스제 타미플루와 리렌자는 600만명분을 보유하고 있으며 이달 중으로 350만명분이 추가로 들어올 예정입니다.   
   이것만 본다면 신종플루 위기단계를 '경계'로 하향하는 것은 적절한 조치로 보입니다.
   하지만 정부가 살짝 숨기려는 것이 있습니다.
 


  [출처=보건복지가족부-질병관리본부 12월 10일자 보도자료]
 
   신종플루로 인한 사망자 수입니다.
   중앙재난안전대책본부의 지난달 25일 보도자료(47주째, 11월 15일~21일)에 따르면 새로 확인한 신종플루로 인한 사망자 수는 22명이었습니다. 지난 3일 보도자료(48주째, 22일~28일)는 신종플루 추가 사망자 수는 13명으로 총 117명이 사망했다고 발표했습니다.
   하지만 신종플루 위기단계를 '경계'로 낮추면서 발표한 이번 보도자료는 "사망 사례도 46주 25건으로 가장 많았다가 이후 계속 감소함"으로 구체적인 숫자를 밝히지 않았습니다.
   그렇다면 국내에서 신종플루로 사망한 사람은 과연 몇명이나 될까요('신종플루 사망률 0.03%에 숨겨진 비밀' http://blog.joins.com/n127/11154482 ).
 
 
 
 [출처=중앙재난안전대책본부 11월 25일자 보도자료]
 
   중앙재난안전대책본부가 지난달 25일 내놓은 보도자료에 따르면 44주 기간 중 신종플루로 사망한 사람은 모두 25명이었습니다. 하지만 이번달 10일 보건복지가족부와 질병관리본부가 함께 내놓은 보도자료에 따르면 44주 기간 중 사망자는 24명으로 되레 1명이 줄었습니다.
   두 보도자료를 자세히 살펴보니 중앙재난안전대책본부와 보건복지가족부-질병관리본부가 분류한 44주와 45주의 날자가 다르더군요.
   중앙재난안전대책본부가 분류한 44주는 '10월 25일부터 31일까지'입니다. 45주는 11월 1일부터 7일까지입니다. 하지만 보건복지가족부-질병관리본부가 분류한 44주는 '10월 26일부터 11월 1일까지'로 중앙재난안전대책본부의 분류보다 하루가 늦습니다.
   날짜가 하루 다르니 44주 기간 중 사망자 수가 달라질 가능성이 높습니다.
   중앙재난안전대책본부가 지난 3일 보도자료를 통해 밝힌 '지난달 28일까지 신종플루로 인한 사망으로 확인된 사람은 모두 117명'이었습니다.
   10일 보건복지가족부와 질병관리본부가 함께 발표한 보도자료에 따르면 11월 30일부터 12월 6일 사이에
사망한 것으로 확인된 사람은 6명입니다. 11월 29일까지 사망한 것으로 새로 확인된 사람은 추가로 나올 수 있습니다. 이를 감안하면 그동안 신종플루로 인한 사망자는 '117명+6명'보다 많을 가능성이 높습니다.
   신종플루로 인하여 목숨을 잃은 사람은 123명이 넘는다는 것이죠.
   그런데 정부는 왜 사망자 수를 정확히 발표하지 않는 것일까요.
   물론 신종플루 위기단계를 '심각'에서 '경계'로 하향 조정하는데 문제가 되는 수치가 나왔기 때문은 아니겠죠.




노태운 기자

by 프라즈마공기살균기 | 2009/12/12 10:35 | 트랙백 | 덧글(0)

신종플루 '맹위'..사망 사례 급증


<신종플루 '맹위'..사망 사례 급증>





2009년 11월 13일 (금) 10:07
  연합뉴스

미국 사망자 수 4천명 육박..유럽 사망자도 급증WHO "위험군에 항바이러스제 신속 투약해야"

(서울=연합뉴스) 이연정 기자 = 인플루엔자 A[H1N1](신종플루)가 갈수록 맹위를 떨치고 있다.

AFPㆍ신화통신 등 주요 외신은 12일 미국과 아시아를 포함, 전 세계에서 맹위를 떨치고 있는 신종플루 관련 소식들을 신속히 전했다.

◇미국 사망자 4천명 육박 = 미국 질병통제예방센터(CDC)는 올해 4~10월에 발생한 자국 내 신종플루 사망자 수가 3천900명에 이르는 것으로 추정되며, 감염 환자도 2천200만명에 이르는 것으로 집계됐다고 12일 발표했다.

앤 슈채트 CDC 면역호흡질병 담당 국장은 보건당국이 신종플루의 실태를 보다 정확히 분석한 결과 이 같은 결과가 나왔다고 밝히면서, 이번 사망자 추정치는 기존의 세 배가 넘는 것이라고 말했다.

◇북유럽으로 확산 = 신종플루 사망자 수가 빠르게 늘고 있는 유럽에서는 그 기세가 북유럽까지 확산되고 있다.

핀란드 사회보건부는 12일 성명을 통해 신종플루 확진 환자가 총 2천940명에 이르며, 확인되지 않은 사례까지 포함하면 환자 수가 수만 명에 이를 수도 있다고 밝히면서 신종플루가 핀란드 전역으로 확산됐다고 밝혔다.

보건부는 핀란드 내 신종플루 환자의 대부분이 경미한 증상을 보이다 회복된 것으로 안다고 밝히면서도 고용주들을 향해 직원이 신종플루 감염 의심 증세를 보일 경우 의사나 간호사의 허가 없이도 병가를 내 줄 것을 당부했다.

한 주만에 신종플루 환자 수가 두 배로 늘어난 스웨덴에서는 백신 접종 대상을 영ㆍ유아층까지 확대했다.

스웨덴 정부는 이날 신종플루 백신 접종 대상자의 연령 하한선을 종전의 3세 이상에서 생후 6개월 이상으로 낮췄다고 현지 뉴스통신사 'TT'가 전했다.

스웨덴에서는 지난 주말 1천200명의 신종플루 환자가 새로 발생해 환자 수가 거의 두 배로 늘어났으며, 특히 4세 이하 어린이의 감염 사례가 급증한 것으로 알려다.

한편, 유럽질병예방통제센터(ECDC)는 유럽 31개 국가에서 지난 주 발생한 신종플루 사망자가 84명에 달해 전 주(43명)에 비해 2배 가까이 늘어났다고 11일 밝혔다.

ECDC는 자체 웹사이트를 통해 유럽 31개 국가의 최근 5주간 신종플루 희생자가 12명, 24명, 49명, 43명, 84명 등으로 증가세를 보이고 있다고 전하면서, 주말까지 유럽에서 발생한 신종플루 사망자는 영국 155명, 스페인 73명, 이탈리아 31명, 프랑스 30명 등 총 414명에 달한다고 밝혔다.

유럽 국가 중 신종플루 사망자가 가장 많이 발생한 영국에서는 지난 주에도 사망자 증가세가 계속됐지만, 신규 감염자 발생 속도는 둔화된 것으로 알려졌다.

리엄 도널드슨 영국 수석의무관은 12일 영국의 신종플루 사망자 수가 총 182명으로 늘어났으며, 사망자의 1/5는 신종플루 감염 전 건강한 사람들이었다고 밝혔다.

그는 이어 보건국(HPA) 통계를 인용, 지난 주 영국에서 발생한 신종플루 환자 수는 6만4천명으로 전 주에 비해 2만명 가까이 줄었다고 밝혔지만, 감염자 증가세가 꺾이기 시작한 것인지에 대해선 아직 확신할 수 없다면서 신중한 태도를 보였다.

◇아시아ㆍ중동 확산세 지속 = 아시아ㆍ중동 지역에서도 신종플루 확산 기세가 꺾이지 않고 있다.

베트남 보건부는 12일 홈페이지를 통해 16세 소녀가 신종플루로 숨진 사실이 새롭게 확인되면서 베트남 내 신종플루 사망자 수가 총 41명으로 늘어났다고 밝혔다.

사망자는 임신 6개월 상태였으며, 지난 3일 감염 의심 증상을 보여 나흘 뒤 병원으로 후송됐으나 증상이 악화돼 숨졌다고 보건부는 덧붙였다.

중국 위생부도 11일 홈페이지를 통해 신종플루 사망자수가 36명으로 증가했다고 발표했다.

위생부는 9~11일 3천393명의 환자가 추가로 발생해 31개 성·시·자치구의 누적 환자수가 6만2천871명에 달하는 것으로 집계됐으며, 이중 중증 환자는 285명이라고 밝혔다.

중동의 터키에서도 9~10일 이틀간 10명의 신종플루 사망자가 발생해 총 사망자 수가 40명으로 늘어났다.

터키 보건부는 10일 발표한 성명을 통해 신종플루 사망자 수가 40명으로 늘어났다고 밝히고, 현재도 감염 환자 145명이 치료를 받고 있으며 이 중 33명은 중증 환자라고 밝혔다.

이와 관련, CNN 튀르크 방송은 터키에서 지난달 24일 첫 신종플루 사망자가 보고된 이래 불과 3주일 만에 사망자 수가 40명까지 늘어났다면서 터키의 신종플루 확산 기세가 심상치 않다고 전했다.

◇ WHO "위험군에 항바이러스제 신속 투약" = 세계보건기구(WHO)는 12일 임산부와 2세 이하 유아, 지병 보유자 등 고위험군에 속하는 사람들의 경우 신종플루 확진 전에 신속하게 항바이러스제를 투여할 것을 권고했다.

WHO의 니키 신도 박사는 대부분의 신종플루 감염 환자들이 경미한 증상을 보인 후 수일 내에 회복되지만, 위험 그룹의 경우 가능한 한 빨리 항바이러스제를 투약해야 증상 악화를 막을 수 있다고 조언했다.

다만 경미한 의심 증상을 보이는 건강한 사람들의 경우 확진 판정을 받기도 전에 예방 차원에서 항바이러스제를 투약할 필요는 없다고 신도 박사는 덧붙였다.

by 프라즈마공기살균기 | 2009/11/13 12:04 | 세균관련 - 뉴스 정보 | 트랙백 | 덧글(0)

Interim Guidance for 2009 H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu): Taking Care





 

October 23, 2009 2:30 PM ET

Interim Guidance for 2009 H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu): Taking Care of a Sick Person in Your Home

This document has been updated in accordance with the CDC Recommendations for the Amount of Time Persons with Influenza-Like Illness Should be Away from Others . This document provides interim guidance and will be updated as needed.

2009 H1N1 flu virus infection (formerly known as swine flu) can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people may also have vomiting and diarrhea.  People may be infected with the flu, including 2009 H1N1, and have respiratory symptoms without a fever.  Like seasonal flu, 2009 H1N1 flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Severe disease with pneumonia, respiratory failure and even death is possible with 2009 H1N1 flu infection. Certain groups might be more likely to develop a severe illness from 2009 H1N1 flu infection, such as pregnant women and persons with chronic medical conditions. Sometimes bacterial infections may occur at the same time as or after infection with influenza viruses and lead to pneumonias, ear infections, or sinus infections.

The following information can help you provide safer care at home for sick persons during a flu outbreak or flu pandemic.

How Flu Spreads

Don’t Get, Don’t Spread Video

Don’t Get, Don’t Spread Video.Dr Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the flu, and spreading it to others.

Photo of sick child with motherThe main way that influenza viruses are thought to spread is from person to person in respiratory droplets of coughs and sneezes. This can happen when droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person are propelled through the air and deposited on the mouth or nose of people nearby. Influenza viruses may also be spread when a person touches respiratory droplets on another person or an object and then touches their own mouth or nose (or someone else’s mouth or nose) before washing their hands.

People with 2009 H1N1 flu who are cared for at home should:
  • check with their health care provider about any special care they might need if they are pregnant or have a health condition such as diabetes, heart disease, asthma, or emphysema
  • check with their health care provider about whether they should take antiviral medications
  • keep away from others as much as possible. This is to keep from making others sick. Do not go to work or school while ill
  • stay home for at least 24 hours after fever is gone, except to seek medical care or for other necessities. (Fever should be gone without the use of a fever-reducing medicine.)
  • get plenty of rest
  • drink clear fluids (such as water, broth, sports drinks, electrolyte beverages for infants) to keep from being dehydrated
  • cover coughs and sneezes. Wash hands often with soap and water.  If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.
  • wear a facemask – if available and tolerable – when sharing common spaces with other household members to help prevent spreading the virus to others. This is especially important if other household members are at high risk for complications from influenza.  For more information, see the Interim Recommendations for Facemask and Respirator Use
  • be watchful for emergency warning signs (see below) that might indicate you need to seek medical attention.

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Medications to Help Lessen Symptoms of the Flu

Influenza Round Table: Antiviral Drugs Video

Influenza Round Table: Antiviral DrugsInfluenza Round Table: Antiviral Drugs Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used.
Check with your healthcare provider or pharmacist for correct, safe use of medications

Antiviral medications can sometimes help lessen influenza symptoms, but require a prescription. Most people do not need these antiviral drugs to fully recover from the flu. However, persons at higher risk for severe flu complications, or those with severe flu illness who require hospitalization, might benefit from antiviral medications. Antiviral medications are available for persons 1 year of age and older. Ask your health care provider whether you need antiviral medication.

Influenza infections can lead to or occur with bacterial infections. Therefore, some people will also need to take antibiotics. More severe or prolonged illness or illness that seems to get better, but then gets worse again may be an indication that a person has a bacterial infection. Check with your health care provider if you have concerns.

Warning! Do not give aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) to children or teenagers who have the flu; this can cause a rare but serious illness called Reye’s syndrome. For more information about Reye’s syndrome, visit the National Institute of Health websiteExternal Web Site IconExternal Web Site Policy..

  • Check ingredient labels on over-the-counter cold and flu medications to see if they contain aspirin.
  • Children 5 years of age and older and teenagers with the flu can take medicines without aspirin, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®, Nuprin®), to relieve symptoms.
  • Children younger than 4 years of age should NOT be given over-the-counter cold medications without first speaking with a health care provider.
  • The safest care for flu symptoms in children younger than 2 years of age is using a cool-mist humidifier and a suction bulb to help clear away mucus.
  • Fevers and aches can be treated with acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®, Nuprin®) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). Examples of these kinds of medications include:
Generic NameBrand Name(s)
Acetaminophen

Tylenol®

Ibuprofen

Advil®, Motrin®, Nuprin®

Naproxen

Aleve

  • Over-the-counter cold and flu medications used according to the package instructions may help lessen some symptoms such as cough and congestion. Importantly, these medications will not lessen how infectious a person is.
  • Check the ingredients on the package label to see if the medication already contains acetaminophen or ibuprofen before taking additional doses of these medications—don’t double dose! Patients with kidney disease or stomach problems should check with their health care provider before taking any NSAIDS.
Check with your health care provider or pharmacist if you are taking other over-the-counter or prescription medications not related to the flu. For more information on products for treating flu symptoms, see the FDA websiteExternal Web Site Icon.
When to Seek Emergency Medical Care

Get medical care right away if the sick person at home:

  • has difficulty breathing or chest pain
  • has purple or blue discoloration of the lips
  • is vomiting and unable to keep liquids down
  • has signs of dehydration such as dizziness when standing, absence of urination, or in infants, a lack of tears when they cry
  • has seizures (for example, uncontrolled convulsions)
  • is less responsive than normal or becomes confused

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Steps to Lessen the Spread of Flu in the Home

When providing care to a household member who is sick with influenza, the most important ways to protect yourself and others who are not sick are to:

  • Photo of child washing handskeep the sick person away from other people as much as possible (see “placement of the sick person”) especially others who are at high risk for complications from influenza
  • remind the sick person to cover their coughs, and clean their hands with soap and water often.  If soap and water are not available, they should use an alcohol-based hand rub*, especially after coughing and/or sneezing
  • have everyone in the household clean their hands often, using soap and water (or an alcohol-based hand rub*, if soap and water are not available). Children may need reminders or help keeping their hands clean
  • ask your health care provider if household contacts of the sick person—particularly those contacts who may be pregnant or have chronic health conditions—should take antiviral medications such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) or zanamivir (Relenza®) to prevent the flu
  • If you are in a high risk group for complications from influenza, you should attempt to avoid close contact (within 6 feet) with household members who are sick with influenza. If close contact with a sick individual is unavoidable, consider wearing a facemask or respirator, if available and tolerable.  Infants should not be cared for by sick family members.  For more information, see the Interim Recommendations for Facemask and Respirator Use

Placement of the sick person

  • Keep the sick person in a room separate from the common areas of the house. (For example, a spare bedroom with its own bathroom, if that’s possible.) Keep the sickroom door closed.
  • Unless necessary for medical care or other necessities, people who are sick with an influenza-like-illness should stay home and keep away from others as much as possible, including avoiding travel, for at least 24 hours after fever is gone except to get medical care or for other necessities. (Fever should be gone without the use of a fever-reducing medicine). This is to keep from making others sick. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods. 
  • If persons with the flu need to leave the home (for example, for medical care), they should wear a facemask, if available and tolerable, and cover their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing
  • Have the sick person wear a facemask – if available and tolerable – if they need to be in a common area of the house near other persons.
  • If possible, sick persons should use a separate bathroom. This bathroom should be cleaned daily with household disinfectant (see below).

Protect other persons in the home

  • The sick person should not have visitors other than caregivers. A phone call is safer than a visit.
  • If possible, have only one adult in the home take care of the sick person. People at increased risk of severe illness from flu should not be the designated caretaker, if possible.
  • If you are in a high risk group for complications from influenza, you should attempt to avoid close contact (within 6 feet) with household members who are sick with influenza. If close contact with a sick individual is unavoidable, consider wearing a facemask or respirator, if available and tolerable. For more information, see the Interim Recommendations for Facemask and Respirator Use.
  • Avoid having pregnant women care for the sick person. (Pregnant women are at increased risk of influenza-related complications and immunity can be suppressed during pregnancy).
  • Avoid having sick family members care for infants and other groups at high risk for complications of influenza.
  • All persons in the household should clean their hands with soap and water frequently, including after every contact with the sick person or the person’s room or bathroom.
  • Use paper towels for drying hands after hand washing or dedicate cloth towels to each person in the household. For example, have different colored towels for each person.
  • If soap and water are not available, persons should use an alcohol-based hand rub.*
  • If possible, consideration should be given to maintaining good ventilation in shared household areas (e.g., keeping windows open in restrooms, kitchen, bathroom, etc.).
  • Antiviral medications can be used to prevent the flu, so check with your health care provider to see if some persons in the home should use antiviral medications.

If you are the caregiver

  • Avoid being face-to-face with the sick person.
  • When holding small children who are sick, place their chin on your shoulder so that they will not cough in your face.
  • Clean your hands with soap and water after you touch the sick person or handle used tissues, or laundry. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub*
  • Talk to your health care provider about taking antiviral medication to prevent the caregiver from getting the flu.
  • If you are at high risk of influenza associated complications, you should not be the designated caretaker, if possible.
  • If you are in a high risk group for complications from influenza, you should attempt to avoid close contact (within 6 feet) with household members who are sick with influenza. Designate a person who is not at high risk of flu associated complications as the primary caretaker of household members who are sick with influenza, if at all possible. If close contact with a sick individual is unavoidable, consider wearing a facemask or respirator, if available and tolerable. For more information, see the Interim Recommendations for Facemask and Respirator Use
  • Monitor yourself and household members for flu symptoms and contact a telephone hotline or health care provider if symptoms occur.

Using Facemasks or Respirators

  • Photo of person wearing facemaskAvoid close contact (less than about 6 feet away) with the sick person as much as possible.
  • If you must have close contact with the sick person (for example, hold a sick infant), spend the least amount of time possible in close contact and try to wear a facemask (for example, surgical mask) or N95 disposable respirator.
  • An N95 respirator that fits snugly on your face can filter out small particles that can be inhaled around the edges of a facemask, but compared with a facemask it is harder to breathe through an N95 mask for long periods of time. More information on facemasks and respirators can be found at H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) website.
  • Facemasks and respirators may be purchased at a pharmacy, building supply or hardware store.
  • Wear an N95 respirator if you help a sick person with respiratory treatments using a nebulizer or inhaler, as directed by their doctor. Respiratory treatments should be performed in a separate room away from common areas of the house when at all possible.
  • Used facemasks and N95 respirators should be taken off and placed immediately in the regular trash so they don’t touch anything else.
  • Avoid re-using disposable facemasks and N95 respirators, if possible. If a reusable fabric facemask is used, it should be laundered with normal laundry detergent and tumble-dried in a hot dryer.
  • After you take off a facemask or N95 respirator, clean your hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • For more information, see the Interim Recommendations for Facemask and Respirator Use

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Household Cleaning, Laundry, and Waste Disposal

  • Photo of person cleaning glass surfaceThrow away tissues and other disposable items used by the sick person in the trash. Wash your hands after touching used tissues and similar waste.
  • Keep surfaces (especially bedside tables, surfaces in the bathroom, and toys for children) clean by wiping them down with a household disinfectant according to directions on the product label.
  • Linens, eating utensils, and dishes belonging to those who are sick do not need to be cleaned separately, but importantly these items should not be shared without washing thoroughly first.
  • Wash linens (such as bed sheets and towels) by using household laundry soap and tumble dry on a hot setting. Avoid “hugging” laundry prior to washing it to prevent contaminating yourself. Clean your hands with soap and water right after handling dirty laundry. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.*
  • Eating utensils should be washed either in a dishwasher or by hand with water and soap.

For More Information

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hotline (1-800-CDC-INFO) is available in English and Spanish, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

by 프라즈마공기살균기 | 2009/11/08 15:42 | 트랙백 | 덧글(0)

2009 H1N1 Flu ("Swine Flu") and You

2009 H1N1 Flu

What is 2009 H1N1 (swine flu)?
2009 H1N1 (sometimes called “swine flu”) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health OrganizationExternal Web Site Icon (WHO) signaled that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was underway.

H1N1 Influenza virus imageWhy is 2009 H1N1 virus sometimes called “swine flu”?
This virus was originally referred to as “swine flu” because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that this new virus is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a "quadruple reassortant" virus.


2009 H1N1 Flu in Humans


Are there human infections with 2009 H1N1 virus in the U.S.?
Yes. Human infections with 2009 H1N1 are ongoing in the United States. Most people who have become ill with this new virus have recovered without requiring medical treatment.
CDC routinely works with states to collect, compile and analyze information about influenza, and has done the same for the new H1N1 virus since the beginning of the outbreak. This information is presented in a weekly report, called FluView.

Is 2009 H1N1 virus contagious?
The 2009 H1N1 virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human.

How does 2009 H1N1 virus spread?
Spread of 2009 H1N1 virus is thought to occur in the same way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing by people with influenza. Sometimes people may become infected by touching something – such as a surface or object – with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

Can I get 2009 H1N1 more than once? Nov 5
Getting infected with any influenza virus, including 2009 H1N1, should cause your body to develop immune resistance to that virus so it's not likely that a person would be infected with the identical influenza virus more than once. (However, people with weakened immune systems might not develop full immunity after infection and might be more likely to get infected with the same influenza virus more than once.) However, it's also possible that a person could have a positive test result for flu infection more than once in an influenza season. This can occur for two reasons:

  1. A person may be infected with different influenza viruses (for example, the first time with 2009 H1N1 and the second time with a regular seasonal flu virus. Most rapid tests cannot distinguish which influenza virus is responsible for the illness. And,
  2. Influenza tests can occasionally give false positive and false negative results so it's possible that one of the test results were incorrect. This is more likely to happen when the diagnosis is made with the rapid flu tests. More information about flu diagnosis is available at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/diagnosis/.


 Don’t Get, Don’t Spread Video

Don’t Get, Don’t Spread Video.Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the flu, and spreading it to others.

Photo of nurse and child

What are the signs and symptoms of this virus in people?
The symptoms of 2009 H1N1 flu virus in people include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea. People may be infected with the flu, including 2009 H1N1 and have respiratory symptoms without a fever. Severe illnesses and deaths have occurred as a result of illness associated with this virus.

How severe is illness associated with 2009 H1N1 flu virus?
Illness with 2009 H1N1 virus has ranged from mild to severe. While most people who have been sick have recovered without needing medical treatment, hospitalizations and deaths from infection with this virus have occurred.

In seasonal flu, certain people are at “high risk” of serious complications. This includes people 65 years and older, children younger than five years old, pregnant women, and people of any age with certain chronic medical conditions. About 70 percent of people who have been hospitalized with this 2009 H1N1 virus have had one or more medical conditions previously recognized as placing people at “high risk” of serious seasonal flu-related complications. This includes pregnancy, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and kidney disease.

Young children are also at high risk of serious complications from 2009 H1N1, just as they are from seasonal flu. And while people 65 and older are the least likely to be infected with 2009 H1N1 flu, if they get sick, they are also at “high risk” of developing serious complications from their illness. See People at High Risk of Developing Flu-Related Complications for more information about who is more likely to get flu complications that result in being hospitalized and occasionally result in death.

CDC laboratory studies have shown that no children and very few adults younger than 60 years old have existing antibody to 2009 H1N1 flu virus; however, about one-third of adults older than 60 may have antibodies against this virus. It is unknown how much, if any, protection may be afforded against 2009 H1N1 flu by any existing antibody.

How does 2009 H1N1 flu compare to seasonal flu in terms of its severity and infection rates?
With seasonal flu, we know that seasons vary in terms of timing, duration and severity. Seasonal influenza can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Each year, in the United States, on average 36,000 people die from flu-related complications and more than 200,000 people are hospitalized from flu-related causes. Of those hospitalized, 20,000 are children younger than 5 years old. Over 90% of deaths and about 60 percent of hospitalization occur in people older than 65.

When the 2009 H1N1 outbreak was first detected in mid-April 2009, CDC began working with states to collect, compile and analyze information regarding the 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak, including the numbers of confirmed and probable cases and the ages of these people. The information analyzed by CDC supports the conclusion that 2009 H1N1 flu has caused greater disease burden in people younger than 25 years of age than older people. At this time, there are relatively fewer cases and deaths reported in people 65 years and older, which is unusual when compared with seasonal flu.  However, pregnancy and other previously recognized high risk medical conditions from seasonal influenza appear to be associated with increased risk of complications from this 2009 H1N1. These underlying conditions include asthma, diabetes, suppressed immune systems, heart disease, kidney disease, neurocognitive and neuromuscular disorders and pregnancy.

How long can an infected person spread this virus to others?
People infected with seasonal and 2009 H1N1 flu shed virus and may be able to infect others from 1 day before getting sick to 5 to 7 days after. This can be longer in some people, especially children and people with weakened immune systems and in people infected with the new H1N1 virus.

Prevention & Treatment
 

Influenza Round Table: Take 3 Video

Influenza Roundtable: Take 3 VideoDr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting the flu, and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.

What can I do to protect myself from getting sick? Oct 8
This season, there is a seasonal flu vaccine to protect against seasonal flu viruses and a 2009 H1N1 vaccine to protect against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (sometimes called “swine flu”). A flu vaccine is the first and most important step in protecting against flu infection. For information about the 2009 H1N1 vaccines, visit H1N1 Flu Vaccination Resources. For information about seasonal influenza vaccines, visit Preventing Seasonal Flu With Vaccination.

There are also everyday actions that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like the flu.

Take these everyday steps to protect your health:

Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand rub.*
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.
  • Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
  • If you are sick with flu-like illness, CDC recommends that you stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever is gone except to get medical care or for other necessities. (Your fever should be gone without the use of a fever-reducing medicine.) Keep away from others as much as possible to keep from making others sick.

Other important actions that you can take are:

  • Follow public health advice regarding school closures, avoiding crowds and other social distancing measures.
  • Be prepared in case you get sick and need to stay home for a week or so; a supply of over-the-counter medicines, alcohol-based hand rubs * (for when soap and water are not available), tissues and other related items could help you to avoid the need to make trips out in public while you are sick and contagious.

Photo of man sneezingWhat is the best way to keep from spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing?
If you are sick with flu-like illness, CDC recommends that you stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever is gone except to get medical care or for other necessities. (Your fever should be gone without the use of a fever-reducing medicine.)
Keep away from others as much as possible. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. Put your used tissue in the waste basket. Then, clean your hands, and do so every time you cough or sneeze.

If I have a family member at home who is sick with 2009 H1N1 flu, should I go to work?
Employees who are well but who have an ill family member at home with 2009 H1N1 flu can go to work as usual. These employees should monitor their health every day, and take everyday precautions including covering their coughs and sneezes and washing their hands often with soap and water, especially after they cough or sneeze. If soap and water are not available, they should use an alcohol-based hand rub.* If they become ill, they should notify their supervisor and stay home. Employees who have an underlying medical condition or who are pregnant should call their health care provider for advice, because they might need to receive influenza antiviral drugs. For more information please see General Business and Workplace Guidance for the Prevention of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Flu in Workers.

What is the best technique for washing my hands to avoid getting the flu?
Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs. CDC recommends that when you wash your hands -- with soap and warm water -- that you wash for 15 to 20 seconds. When soap and water are not available, alcohol-based disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers may be used.* You can find them in most supermarkets and drugstores. If using gel, rub your hands until the gel is dry. The gel doesn't need water to work; the alcohol in it kills the germs on your hands.

What should I do if I get sick?
For information about what to do if you get sick with flu-like symptoms this season, see What To Do If You Get Sick: 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu. A downloadable flyer Adobe PDF file containing this information also is available at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/freeresources/2009-10/pdf/what_to_do_if_you_get_sick.pdf Adobe PDF file.

What are “emergency warning signs” that should signal anyone to seek medical care urgently?

Influenza Round Table: Warning Signs Video

Influenza Round Table: Warning Signs Video Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of flu, including the new H1N1 flu, and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.

In children:

  • Fast breathing or trouble breathing
  • Bluish skin color
  • Not drinking enough fluids
  • Not waking up or not interacting
  • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held
  • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
  • Fever with a rash

In adults:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Severe or persistent vomiting

Are there medicines to treat 2009 H1N1 infection?

Influenza Round Table: Antiviral Drugs Video

Influenza Round Table: Antiviral DrugsInfluenza Round Table: Antiviral Drugs Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used.

Yes. There are drugs your doctor may prescribe for treating both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 called “antiviral drugs.” These drugs can make you better faster and may also prevent serious complications. This flu season, antiviral drugs are being used mainly to treat people who are very sick, such as people who need to be hospitalized, and to treat sick people who are more likely to get serious flu complications. Your health care provider will decide whether antiviral drugs are needed to treat your illness. Remember, most people with 2009 H1N1 have had mild illness and have not needed medical care or antiviral drugs and the same is true of seasonal flu.

What is CDC’s recommendation regarding "swine flu parties"?
"Swine flu parties" are gatherings during which people have close contact with a person who has 2009 H1N1 flu in order to become infected with the virus. The intent of these parties is for a person to become infected with what for many people has been a mild disease, in the hope of having natural immunity 2009 H1N1 flu virus that might circulate later and cause more severe disease.

CDC does not recommend "swine flu parties" as a way to protect against 2009 H1N1 flu in the future. While the disease seen in the current 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak has been mild for many people, it has been severe and even fatal for others. There is no way to predict with certainty what the outcome will be for an individual or, equally important, for others to whom the intentionally infected person may spread the virus.

CDC recommends that people with 2009 H1N1 flu avoid contact with others as much as possible. If you are sick with flu-like illness, CDC recommends that you stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever is gone except to get medical care or for other necessities. (Your fever should be gone without the use of a fever-reducing medicine.) Stay away from others as much as possible to keep from making others sick.

Contamination & Cleaning


Photo of hands and soapHow long can influenza virus remain viable on objects (such as books and doorknobs)?
Studies have shown that influenza virus can survive on environmental surfaces and can infect a person for 2 to 8 hours after being deposited on the surface.

What kills influenza virus?
Influenza virus is destroyed by heat (167-212°F [75-100°C]). In addition, several chemical germicides, including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, detergents (soap), iodophors (iodine-based antiseptics), and alcohols are effective against human influenza viruses if used in proper concentration for a sufficient length of time.

*What if soap and water are not available and alcohol-based products are not allowed in my facility? Updated on Sept 14
If soap and water are not available and alcohol-based products are not allowed, other hand sanitizers that do not contain alcohol may be useful.

What surfaces are most likely to be sources of contamination?
Germs can be spread when a person touches something that is contaminated with germs and then touches his or her eyes, nose, or mouth. Droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person move through the air. Germs can be spread when a person touches respiratory droplets from another person on a surface like a desk, for example, and then touches their own eyes, mouth or nose before washing their hands.

How should waste disposal be handled to prevent the spread of influenza virus?
To prevent the spread of influenza virus, it is recommended that tissues and other disposable items used by an infected person be thrown in the trash. Additionally, persons should wash their hands with soap and water after touching used tissues and similar waste.

Photo of cleaning suppliesWhat household cleaning should be done to prevent the spread of influenza virus?
To prevent the spread of influenza virus it is important to keep surfaces (especially bedside tables, surfaces in the bathroom, kitchen counters and toys for children) clean by wiping them down with a household disinfectant according to directions on the product label.

How should linens, eating utensils and dishes of persons infected with influenza virus be handled?
Linens, eating utensils, and dishes belonging to those who are sick do not need to be cleaned separately, but importantly these items should not be shared without washing thoroughly first.
Linens (such as bed sheets and towels) should be washed by using household laundry soap and tumbled dry on a hot setting. Individuals should avoid "hugging" laundry prior to washing it to prevent contaminating themselves. Individuals should wash their hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub immediately after handling dirty laundry.

Eating utensils should be washed either in a dishwasher or by hand with water and soap.

Exposures Not Thought to Spread 2009 H1N1 Flu


Can I get infected with 2009 H1N1 virus from eating or preparing pork?
No. 2009 H1N1 viruses are not spread by food. You cannot get infected with novel HIN1 virus from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork products is safe.

Is there a risk from drinking water?
Tap water that has been treated by conventional disinfection processes does not likely pose a risk for transmission of influenza viruses. Current drinking water treatment regulations provide a high degree of protection from viruses. No research has been completed on the susceptibility of 2009 H1N1 flu virus to conventional drinking water treatment processes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that free chlorine levels typically used in drinking water treatment are adequate to inactivate highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. It is likely that other influenza viruses such as 2009 H1N1 would also be similarly inactivated by chlorination. To date, there have been no documented human cases of influenza caused by exposure to influenza-contaminated drinking water.

Can 2009 H1N1 flu virus be spread through water in swimming pools, spas, water parks, interactive fountains, and other treated recreational water venues?
Influenza viruses infect the human upper respiratory tract. There has never been a documented case of influenza virus infection associated with water exposure. Recreational water that has been treated at CDC recommended disinfectant levels does not likely pose a risk for transmission of influenza viruses. No research has been completed on the susceptibility of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus to chlorine and other disinfectants used in swimming pools, spas, water parks, interactive fountains, and other treated recreational venues. However, recent studies have demonstrated that free chlorine levels recommended by CDC (1–3 parts per million [ppm or mg/L] for pools and 2–5 ppm for spas) are adequate to disinfect avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. It is likely that other influenza viruses such as 2009 H1N1 virus would also be similarly disinfected by chlorine.

Can 2009 H1N1 influenza virus be spread at recreational water venues outside of the water?
Yes, recreational water venues are no different than any other group setting. The spread of this 2009 H1N1 flu is thought to be happening in the same way that seasonal flu spreads. Flu viruses are spread mainly from person to person through coughing or sneezing of people with influenza. Sometimes people may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

2009 H1N1 in Companion Animals


What animals can be infected with the 2009 H1N1 virus?
In addition to humans, live swine and turkeys, we know that ferrets (which are highly susceptible to influenza A viruses) and a domestic cat have been infected with 2009 H1N1 virus. CDC is working closely with domestic and international public and animal heath partners to continually monitor this situation and will provide additional information to the public as it becomes available.

How do companion animals become infected with 2009 H1N1?
All available information suggests that the ferrets and domestic cat with 2009 H1N1 infections acquired the virus through close contact with ill humans. Transmission of 2009 H1N1 virus from humans to animals appears similar to human-to-human transmission

Can I get 2009 H1N1 influenza from my pet?
Available evidence suggests that transmission has been from ill humans to their companion animals. No evidence is available to suggest that animals are infecting humans with 2009 H1N1 virus.

What do I do if I am sick with flu-like symptoms and I have pets?
If you are sick with influenza-like-illness, take the same precautions with your pets that you would to keep your family and friends healthy:

  • Cover your coughs and sneezes
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Minimize contact with your pets until 24 hours after your fever is gone

What should I do if I suspect my pet has 2009 H1N1 influenza virus?
If members of your household have flu-like symptoms, and your pet exhibits respiratory illness, contact your veterinarian.

Is there a vaccine available for my pet?
Currently, there is not a licensed and approved 2009 H1N1 vaccine for companion animals. (There is a canine influenza vaccine, which protects dogs from the H3N8 canine flu virus, but it will not protect pets against the 2009 H1N1 virus and should not be used in any species other than dogs.)

How serious is this disease in companion animals?
Pet ferrets with naturally occurring 2009 H1N1 infection have exhibited illness similar in severity as seen with ferrets exposed to seasonal influenza viruses and 2009 H1N1 virus in laboratory settings, including sneezing, inactivity, and weight loss. The single confirmed cat exhibited respiratory illness and recovered with supportive care.

Additional Information

American Veterinary Medical Association
http://www.avma.org/public_health/influenza/new_virus/default.aspExternal Web Site Icon

United States Department of Agriculture
http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/?navid=USDA_H1N1External Web Site Icon

Note: Much of the information in this document is based on studies and past experience with seasonal (human) influenza.  CDC believes the information applies to 2009 H1N1 (swine) viruses as well, but studies on this virus are ongoing to learn more about its characteristics. This document will be updated as new information becomes available.

For general information about influenza in pigs (not 2009 H1N1 flu) see Background Information on Influenza in Pigs.

by 프라즈마공기살균기 | 2009/11/08 15:40 | 세균관련 - 뉴스 정보 | 트랙백(2) | 덧글(0)

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